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The memory API
The memory API models the memory and I/O buses and controllers of a QEMU
machine. It attempts to allow modelling of:
- ordinary RAM
- memory-mapped I/O (MMIO)
- memory controllers that can dynamically reroute physical memory regions
to different destinations
The memory model provides support for
- tracking RAM changes by the guest
- setting up coalesced memory for kvm
- setting up ioeventfd regions for kvm
Memory is modelled as an acyclic graph of MemoryRegion objects. Sinks
(leaves) are RAM and MMIO regions, while other nodes represent
buses, memory controllers, and memory regions that have been rerouted.
In addition to MemoryRegion objects, the memory API provides AddressSpace
objects for every root and possibly for intermediate MemoryRegions too.
These represent memory as seen from the CPU or a device's viewpoint.
Types of regions
There are four types of memory regions (all represented by a single C type
- RAM: a RAM region is simply a range of host memory that can be made available
to the guest.
- MMIO: a range of guest memory that is implemented by host callbacks;
each read or write causes a callback to be called on the host.
- container: a container simply includes other memory regions, each at
a different offset. Containers are useful for grouping several regions
into one unit. For example, a PCI BAR may be composed of a RAM region
and an MMIO region.
A container's subregions are usually non-overlapping. In some cases it is
useful to have overlapping regions; for example a memory controller that
can overlay a subregion of RAM with MMIO or ROM, or a PCI controller
that does not prevent card from claiming overlapping BARs.
- alias: a subsection of another region. Aliases allow a region to be
split apart into discontiguous regions. Examples of uses are memory banks
used when the guest address space is smaller than the amount of RAM
addressed, or a memory controller that splits main memory to expose a "PCI
hole". Aliases may point to any type of region, including other aliases,
but an alias may not point back to itself, directly or indirectly.
It is valid to add subregions to a region which is not a pure container
(that is, to an MMIO, RAM or ROM region). This means that the region
will act like a container, except that any addresses within the container's
region which are not claimed by any subregion are handled by the
container itself (ie by its MMIO callbacks or RAM backing). However
it is generally possible to achieve the same effect with a pure container
one of whose subregions is a low priority "background" region covering
the whole address range; this is often clearer and is preferred.
Subregions cannot be added to an alias region.
Region names
Regions are assigned names by the constructor. For most regions these are
only used for debugging purposes, but RAM regions also use the name to identify
live migration sections. This means that RAM region names need to have ABI
Region lifecycle
A region is created by one of the constructor functions (memory_region_init*())
and destroyed by the destructor (memory_region_destroy()). In between,
a region can be added to an address space by using memory_region_add_subregion()
and removed using memory_region_del_subregion(). Region attributes may be
changed at any point; they take effect once the region becomes exposed to the
Overlapping regions and priority
Usually, regions may not overlap each other; a memory address decodes into
exactly one target. In some cases it is useful to allow regions to overlap,
and sometimes to control which of an overlapping regions is visible to the
guest. This is done with memory_region_add_subregion_overlap(), which
allows the region to overlap any other region in the same container, and
specifies a priority that allows the core to decide which of two regions at
the same address are visible (highest wins).
Priority values are signed, and the default value is zero. This means that
you can use memory_region_add_subregion_overlap() both to specify a region
that must sit 'above' any others (with a positive priority) and also a
background region that sits 'below' others (with a negative priority).
If the higher priority region in an overlap is a container or alias, then
the lower priority region will appear in any "holes" that the higher priority
region has left by not mapping subregions to that area of its address range.
(This applies recursively -- if the subregions are themselves containers or
aliases that leave holes then the lower priority region will appear in these
holes too.)
For example, suppose we have a container A of size 0x8000 with two subregions
B and C. B is a container mapped at 0x2000, size 0x4000, priority 1; C is
an MMIO region mapped at 0x0, size 0x6000, priority 2. B currently has two
of its own subregions: D of size 0x1000 at offset 0 and E of size 0x1000 at
offset 0x2000. As a diagram:
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
A: [ ]
B: [ ]
The regions that will be seen within this address range then are:
Since B has higher priority than C, its subregions appear in the flat map
even where they overlap with C. In ranges where B has not mapped anything
C's region appears.
If B had provided its own MMIO operations (ie it was not a pure container)
then these would be used for any addresses in its range not handled by
D or E, and the result would be:
Priority values are local to a container, because the priorities of two
regions are only compared when they are both children of the same container.
This means that the device in charge of the container (typically modelling
a bus or a memory controller) can use them to manage the interaction of
its child regions without any side effects on other parts of the system.
In the example above, the priorities of D and E are unimportant because
they do not overlap each other. It is the relative priority of B and C
that causes D and E to appear on top of C: D and E's priorities are never
compared against the priority of C.
The memory core uses the following rules to select a memory region when the
guest accesses an address:
- all direct subregions of the root region are matched against the address, in
descending priority order
- if the address lies outside the region offset/size, the subregion is
- if the subregion is a leaf (RAM or MMIO), the search terminates, returning
this leaf region
- if the subregion is a container, the same algorithm is used within the
subregion (after the address is adjusted by the subregion offset)
- if the subregion is an alias, the search is continued at the alias target
(after the address is adjusted by the subregion offset and alias offset)
- if a recursive search within a container or alias subregion does not
find a match (because of a "hole" in the container's coverage of its
address range), then if this is a container with its own MMIO or RAM
backing the search terminates, returning the container itself. Otherwise
we continue with the next subregion in priority order
- if none of the subregions match the address then the search terminates
with no match found
Example memory map
system_memory: container@0-2^48-1
+---- lomem: alias@0-0xdfffffff ---> #ram (0-0xdfffffff)
+---- himem: alias@0x100000000-0x11fffffff ---> #ram (0xe0000000-0xffffffff)
+---- vga-window: alias@0xa0000-0xbfffff ---> #pci (0xa0000-0xbffff)
| (prio 1)
+---- pci-hole: alias@0xe0000000-0xffffffff ---> #pci (0xe0000000-0xffffffff)
pci (0-2^32-1)
+--- vga-area: container@0xa0000-0xbffff
| |
| +--- alias@0x00000-0x7fff ---> #vram (0x010000-0x017fff)
| |
| +--- alias@0x08000-0xffff ---> #vram (0x020000-0x027fff)
+---- vram: ram@0xe1000000-0xe1ffffff
+---- vga-mmio: mmio@0xe2000000-0xe200ffff
ram: ram@0x00000000-0xffffffff
This is a (simplified) PC memory map. The 4GB RAM block is mapped into the
system address space via two aliases: "lomem" is a 1:1 mapping of the first
3.5GB; "himem" maps the last 0.5GB at address 4GB. This leaves 0.5GB for the
so-called PCI hole, that allows a 32-bit PCI bus to exist in a system with
4GB of memory.
The memory controller diverts addresses in the range 640K-768K to the PCI
address space. This is modelled using the "vga-window" alias, mapped at a
higher priority so it obscures the RAM at the same addresses. The vga window
can be removed by programming the memory controller; this is modelled by
removing the alias and exposing the RAM underneath.
The pci address space is not a direct child of the system address space, since
we only want parts of it to be visible (we accomplish this using aliases).
It has two subregions: vga-area models the legacy vga window and is occupied
by two 32K memory banks pointing at two sections of the framebuffer.
In addition the vram is mapped as a BAR at address e1000000, and an additional
BAR containing MMIO registers is mapped after it.
Note that if the guest maps a BAR outside the PCI hole, it would not be
visible as the pci-hole alias clips it to a 0.5GB range.
Various region attributes (read-only, dirty logging, coalesced mmio, ioeventfd)
can be changed during the region lifecycle. They take effect once the region
is made visible (which can be immediately, later, or never).
MMIO Operations
MMIO regions are provided with ->read() and ->write() callbacks; in addition
various constraints can be supplied to control how these callbacks are called:
- .valid.min_access_size, .valid.max_access_size define the access sizes
(in bytes) which the device accepts; accesses outside this range will
have device and bus specific behaviour (ignored, or machine check)
- .valid.aligned specifies that the device only accepts naturally aligned
accesses. Unaligned accesses invoke device and bus specific behaviour.
- .impl.min_access_size, .impl.max_access_size define the access sizes
(in bytes) supported by the *implementation*; other access sizes will be
emulated using the ones available. For example a 4-byte write will be
emulated using four 1-byte writes, if .impl.max_access_size = 1.
- .impl.unaligned specifies that the *implementation* supports unaligned
accesses; if false, unaligned accesses will be emulated by two aligned
- .old_mmio can be used to ease porting from code using
cpu_register_io_memory(). It should not be used in new code.